Kassiaaus Gregorianik

Unknown authorUnknown author, Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons

Kassia (auch Cassia oder Kasia, mittelgriechisch Κασσιανή * um 810 in Konstantinopel; † um 865) war eine byzantinische Äbtissin, Komponistin und Dichterin. Sie gilt als die früheste Komponistin des Abendlandes.

Leben und Wirken

Kassia stammte aus einem vornehmen Elternhaus. Ihr Vater war ein hoher Militär. Bei der Brautschau des Kaisers Theophilos im Mai des Jahres 826 soll sie drei byzantinischen Chronisten zufolge dieser wegen einer geistreichen selbstbewussten Antwort hinsichtlich der theologischen Bedeutung der Erschaffung der Frau nicht als Braut erwählt haben, stattdessen nahm er die bescheiden und schüchtern auftretende Theodora.

Kassia gründete 843 eine Gemeinschaft geweihter Jungfrauen in Konstantinopel, deren Vorsteherin sie später wurde. Dort schuf sie bedeutende Kompositionen. Erhalten sind rund fünfzig Hymnen, von denen dreiundzwanzig Eingang in die liturgischen Bücher der orthodoxen Kirchen fanden. Außer ihren Gedichten hat Kassia weltliche Schriften in Form von 261 Epigrammen hinterlassen.

Der Gedenktag der hl. Kassia ist in den orthodoxen Kirchen am 7. September.

Quelle Wiki: https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kassia

Kassia (also Cassia or Kasia, Middle Greek Κασσιανή * c. 810 in Constantinople; † c. 865) was a Byzantine abbess, composer and poet. She is considered the earliest composer in the West.

Life

Kassia was born between 805 and 810 in Constantinople into a wealthy family and grew to be exceptionally beautiful and intelligent. Three Byzantine chroniclers, Pseudo-Symeon the Logothete, George the Monk (a.k.a. George the Sinner) and Leo the Grammarian, claim that she was a participant in the “bride show” (the means by which Byzantine princes/emperors sometimes chose a bride, by giving a golden apple to his choice) organized for the young bachelor Theophilos by his stepmother, the Empress Dowager Euphrosyne. Smitten by Kassia’s beauty, the young emperor approached her and said: “Through a woman [came forth] the baser [things]”, referring to the sin and suffering coming as a result of Eve’s transgression. Kassia promptly responded by saying: “And through a woman [came forth] the better [things]”, referring to the hope of salvation resulting from the Incarnation of Christ through the Virgin Mary.

His pride wounded by Kassia’s terse rebuttal, Theophilos rejected her and chose Theodora as his wife.

When next we hear of Kassia in 843 she had founded a convent in the west of Constantinople, near the Constantinian Walls, and became its first abbess. Although many scholars attribute this to bitterness at having failed to marry Theophilos and to become Empress, a letter from Theodore the Studite indicates that she had other motivations for wanting a monastic life. It had a close relationship with the nearby monastery of Stoudios, which was to play a central role in re-editing the Byzantine liturgical books in the 9th and 10th centuries, thus ensuring the survival of her work (Kurt Sherry, p. 56). However, since the monastic life was a common vocation in her day, religious zeal is as likely a motive as either depression or aspiration for artistic renown.

The Emperor Theophilos was a fierce iconoclast, and any residual feelings he may have had for Kassia did not preserve her from the imperial policy of persecution for her defence of the veneration of icons. Among other things, she was subjected to scourging with a lash. In spite of this, she remained outspoken in defence of the Orthodox Faith, at one point saying, “I hate silence when it is time to speak.”

After the death of Theophilos in 842 his young son Michael III became Eastern Roman Emperor, with Empress Theodora acting as Regent. Together they ended the second iconoclastic period (814-842); peace was restored to the empire.

Kassia traveled to Italy briefly, but eventually settled on the Greek Island of Kasos where she died sometime between 867 and 890 CE. In the city of Panaghia, there is a church where Kassia’s tomb/reliquary may be found.

Source Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kassia

Diskografie